What is the OpenStack Cloud Computing Cookbook?

As I go through the process of editing the chapters based on the excellent feedback a team of technical reviewers have given us, there are certain themes that are standing out.  One more so is what exactly is the OpenStack Cloud Computing Cookbook, or what is a cookbook in general?

In a traditional setting, a cookbook is a set of cooking recipes on how to bake a cake, make a jacket potato or a lamb rogan josh for example.  These steps include an overview of what you’re about to make, the ingredients, any preparation required and the method by which to create this culinary masterpiece.

These recipes are usually grouped together with some common theme.  It could be starters, mains and desserts or lamb dishes, chicken dishes, etc.

A chef, or keen boyfriend wanting to impress is other half, would find the recipe that they want to follow and go from the beginning of that recipe for that scrumptious Tiramisu. Then voila, after following the 10 steps to create this masterpiece they have their dessert and eat it.

This is the exact same analogy with the OpenStack Cloud Computing Cookbook – or any technical cookbook series: a user locates the scenario they want instructions to follow and, step-by-step, they can recreate the end goal that is laid out for them.  This might be creating a new service role under the OpenStack Identity Service, or deleting SDN networks.

Optionally, and this is the crucial thing, the user can choose to follow from Page 1 to Page 300+ in an attempt to go from bare-metal to more advanced features – but it’s not within the bounds of a cookbook to assume that just because you want a starter, main and dessert that you necessarily have to have chosen a particular starter in order to make the main course more palatable.

What I tried to do with the 1st Edition was to arrange the chapters into a logical flow – the Starters, Mains and Desserts.  In the 2nd Edition we have the following chapters (we’re currently in an editing phase, so these reflect the lay of the land at the time of writing and are subject to change):

  • Chapter 1: Starting OpenStack Identity Service
  • Chapter 2: Starting OpenStack Image Service
  • Chapter 3: Starting OpenStack Compute Service
  • Chapter 4: Administering OpenStack Compute
  • Chapter 5: Starting OpenStack Storage
  • Chapter 6: Using OpenStack Storage
  • Chapter 7: Administering OpenStack Storage
  • Chapter 8: Starting OpenStack Volume Service
  • Chapter 9: Starting OpenStack Dashboard
  • Chapter 10: Using OpenStack Networking
  • Chapter 11: Automating OpenStack Installations
  • Chapter 12: Highly Available OpenStack
  • Chapter 13: Monitoring and Troubleshooting

As you can see there isn’t a chapter on how to plan an installation, what do I have to take into consideration, how to install “OpenStack” (rather than how do I install and configure Keystone, how do I install and configure Glance: these are recipes in the book), how does Glance interact with Keystone and Horizon… if you want a book on these, you need to download or purchase the excellent OpenStack Operations Guide or books that are on Mastering OpenStack.  Guides provide the extra words and reasoning behind OpenStack, cookbooks answer your questions on how to do something.  But the chapters are laid out in the typical order of services that are installed to get OpenStack up and running. One of my pet hates with some documentation is that we ensure continuity from one recipe and chapter to the next so that people wishing to consume from Page 1 to Page 300+ end up in the same place Cody and I expect you to be.

I hope this serves as a useful piece of information for anyone wishing to purchase the book and technical reviewers currently providing feedback to Cody and myself.

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Running OpenStack under VirtualBox – A Complete Guide (Part 2)

In the previous post, we very simply got OpenStack running under VirtualBox. This next part takes this further by getting multiple compute nodes installed to spread the load of your instances. It also paves the way for Part 3 where we will then start to look at Swift, OpenStack’s storage implementation of S3.

Part 2 – OpenStack on a multiple VirtualBox VMs with OpenStack instances accessible from host

We will be using the same set up as for Part 1.

The proposed environment

  • OpenStack “Public” Network: 172.241.0.0/25
  • OpenStack “Private” Network: 10.0.0.0/8
  • Host has access to its own LAN, separate to this on 192.168.0.0/16 and not used for this guide
  • One VirtualBox VM running the software needed for the controller
  • One VirtualBox VM running the software needed for a compute node

This guide will assume you have followed Part 1. We are simply adding in a compute node now, so that will make the virtual machine you created in Part 1 will become the Cloud Controller (CC). Also, OpenStack has been designed so that any part of the environment can run on a separate server. For this guide we will have the following

  • Cloud Controller running MySQL, RabbitMQ, nova-network, nova-scheduler, nova-objectstore, nova-api, nova-compute
  • Compute node running: nova-compute

The Guide

  • Add a new VirtualBox Guest
    • Name: cloud2
      • OS Type: Linux
      • Version: Ubuntu (64-Bit)
    • 2048Mb Ram
    • Boot Hard Disk
      • Dynamically Expanding Storage
      • 8.0Gb
    • After this initial set up, continue to configure the guest
      • Storage:
        • Edit the CD-ROM so that it boots Ubuntu 10.10 Live or Server ISO
        • Ensure that the SATA controller has Host I/O Cache Enabled (recommended by VirtualBox for EXT4 filesystems)
      • Network:
        • Adapter 1
          • Host-only Adapter
          • Name: vboxnet0
        • Adapter 2
          • NAT
          • This will provide the default route to allow the VM to access the internet to get the updates, OpenStack scripts and software
      • Audio:
        • Disable (just not required)
    • Boot the guest and install Ubuntu as per normal
  • Assign static IPs to the cloud controller
    • Ensure that the Cloud Controller you created in Part 1 has static addresses for eth0 and eth1.
      • For the sake of this guide, I’m assuming you have assigned the following
        • eth0: 172.241.0.101/255.255.255.128.  This address is your Cloud Controller address (CC_ADDR) and will be the API interface address you will be communicating on from your host.
        • eth1: stays as dhcp as it is only used for NAT’d access to the real world
    • Your compute nodes don’t need to be set statically, but for the rest of this guide it is assumed the addresses are as follows
      • Cloud2
        • eth0: 172.241.0.102/255.255.255.128
        • eth1: stays as dhcp as it is only used for NAT’d access to the real world
  • Grab this script to install OpenStack
    • This will set up a repository (ppa:nova/trunk) and install MySQL server where the information regarding your cloud will be stored
    • The options specified on the command line match the environment described above
    • wget --no-check-certificate \
      https://github.com/uksysadmin/OpenStackInstaller/raw/master/OSinstall.sh
  • Run the script (as root/through sudo) specifying that you want a compute node and that you’ve specified the IP address of the Cloud Controller
    • sudo bash ./OSinstall.sh -A $(whoami) -T compute -C 172.241.0.101
  • No further configuration is required.
  • Once completed, ensure that the Cloud Controller knows about this new compute node
    • On the Cloud Controller run the following
      • mysql -uroot -pnova nova -e 'select * from services;'
      • sudo nova-manage service list
      • You should see your new compute node listed under hosts
      • If you don’t have a DNS server running that resolves these hosts add your new compute node to /etc/hosts
        • 172.241.0.102 cloud2
  • On the new compute node run the following
    • sudo nova-manage db sync
  • As you copied your credentials from the cloud controller created in Part 1, you should just be able to continue to use this from your host – but this time you can spin up more guests.
    • If you changed the eth0 address of your cloud controller, ensure your cloud/creds/novarc environment file has the correct IP.
  • Repeat the steps above to create further compute nodes in your environment, scaling seamlessly

Running OpenStack under VirtualBox – A Complete Guide (Part 1)

UPDATE: I’ve been working on a new version of the script which can be used to create an OpenStack host running on Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin and the Essex release.
I’ve now got a video to accompany this which is recommended over this guide
Head over to  ‎https://uksysadmin.wordpress.com/2012/03/28/screencast-video-of-an-install-of-openstack-essex-on-ubuntu-12-04-under-virtualbox/

Running OpenStack under VirtualBox allows you to have a complete multi-node cluster that you can access and manage from the computer running VirtualBox as if you’re accessing a region on Amazon.
This is a complete guide to setting up a VirtualBox VM running Ubuntu, with OpenStack running on this guest and an OpenStack instance running, accessible from your host.

Part 1 – OpenStack on a single VirtualBox VM with OpenStack instances accessible from host

The environment used for this guide

  • A 64-Bit Intel Core i7 Laptop, 8Gb Ram.
  • Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick AMD64 (The “host”)
  • VirtualBox 4
  • Access from host running VirtualBox only (so useful for development/proof of concept)

The proposed environment

  • OpenStack “Public” Network: 172.241.0.0/25
  • OpenStack “Private” Network: 10.0.0.0/8
  • Host has access to its own LAN, separate to this on 192.168.0.0/16 and not used for this guide

The Guide

  • Download and install VirtualBox from http://www.virtualbox.org/
  • Under Preferences… Network…
  • Add/Edit Host-only network so you have vboxnet0. This will serve as the “Public interface” to your cloud environment
    • Configure this as follows
      • Adapter
        • IPv4 Address: 172.241.0.100
        • IPv4 Network Mask: 255.255.255.128
      • DHCP Server
        • Disable Server
    • On your Linux host running VirtualBox, you will see an interface created called ‘vboxnet0’ with the address specified as 172.241.0.100. This will be the IP address your OpenStack instances will see when you access them.
    • Create a new Guest
      • Name: Cloud1
        • OS Type: Linux
        • Version: Ubuntu (64-Bit)
      • 1024Mb Ram
      • Boot Hard Disk
        • Dynamically Expanding Storage
        • 8.0Gb
      • After this initial set up, continue to configure the guest
        • Storage:
          • Edit the CD-ROM so that it boots Ubuntu 10.10 Live or Server ISO
          • Ensure that the SATA controller has Host I/O Cache Enabled (recommended by VirtualBox for EXT4 filesystems)
        • Network:
          • Adapter 1
            • Host-only Adapter
            • Name: vboxnet0
          • Adapter 2
            • NAT
            • This will provide the default route to allow the VM to access the internet to get the updates, OpenStack scripts and software
        • Audio:
          • Disable (just not required)
    • Power the guest on and install Ubuntu
    • For this guide I’ve statically assigned the guest with the IP: 172.241.0.101 for eth0 and netmask 255.255.255.128.  This will be the IP address that you will use to access the guest from your host box, as well as the IP address you can use to SSH/SCP files around.
    • Once installed, run an update (sudo apt-get update&&sudo apt-get upgrade) then reboot
    • If you’re running a desktop, install the Guest Additions (Device… Install Guest Additions, then click on Places and select the VBoxGuestAdditions CD and follow the Autorun script), then Reboot
    • Install openssh-server
      • sudo apt-get -y install openssh-server
    • Grab this script to install OpenStack
      • This will set up a repository (ppa:nova/trunk) and install MySQL server where the information regarding your cloud will be stored
      • The options specified on the command line match the environment described above
      • wget https://github.com/uksysadmin/OpenStackInstaller/raw/master/OSinstall.sh
    • Run the script (as root/through sudo)
      • sudo bash ./OSinstall.sh -A $(whoami)
    • Run the post-configuration steps
      • ADMIN=$(whoami)
        sudo nova-manage user admin ${ADMIN}
        sudo nova-manage role add ${ADMIN} cloudadmin
        sudo nova-manage project create myproject ${ADMIN}
        sudo nova-manage project zipfile myproject ${ADMIN}
        mkdir -p cloud/creds
        cd cloud/creds
        unzip ~/nova.zip
        . novarc
        cd
        euca-add-keypair openstack > ~/cloud/creds/openstack.pem
        chmod 0600 cloud/creds/*

    Congratulations, you now have a working Cloud environment waiting for its first image and instances to run, with a user you specified on the command line (yourusername), the credentials to access the cloud and a project called ‘myproject’ to host the instances.

    • You now need to ensure that you can access any instances that you launch via SSH as a minimum (as well as being able to ping) – but I add in access to a web service and port 8080 too for this environment as my “default” security group.
      • euca-authorize default -P tcp -p 22 -s 0.0.0.0/0
        euca-authorize default -P tcp -p 80 -s 0.0.0.0/0
        euca-authorize default -P tcp -p 8080 -s 0.0.0.0/0
        euca-authorize default -P icmp -t -1:-1
    • Next you need to load a UEC image into your cloud so that instances can be launched from it
      • image="ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1.tar.gz"
        wget http://smoser.brickies.net/ubuntu/ttylinux-uec/$image
        uec-publish-tarball $image mybucket
    • Once the uec-publish-tarball command has been run, it will present you with a line with emi=, eri= and eki= specifying the Image, Ramdisk and Kernel as shown below. Highlight this, copy and paste back in your shell
      Thu Feb 24 09:55:19 GMT 2011: ====== extracting image ======
      kernel : ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1-vmlinuz
      ramdisk: ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1-initrd
      image  : ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1.img
      Thu Feb 24 09:55:19 GMT 2011: ====== bundle/upload kernel ======
      Thu Feb 24 09:55:21 GMT 2011: ====== bundle/upload ramdisk ======
      Thu Feb 24 09:55:22 GMT 2011: ====== bundle/upload image ======
      Thu Feb 24 09:55:25 GMT 2011: ====== done ======
      emi="ami-fnlidlmq"; eri="ami-dqliu15n"; eki="ami-66rz6vbs";
    • To launch an instance
      • euca-run-instances $emi -k openstack -t m1.tiny
    • To check its running
      • euca-describe-instances
      • You will see the Private IP that has been assigned to this instance, for example 10.0.0.3
    • To access this via SSH
      • ssh -i cloud/creds/openstack.pem root@10.0.0.3
      • (To log out of ttylinux, type: logout)
    • Congratulations, you now have an OpenStack instance running under OpenStack Nova, running under a VirtualBox VM!
    • To access this outside of the VirtualBox environment (i.e. back on your real computer, the host) you need to assign it a “public” IP
      • Associate this to the instance id (get from euca-describe-instances and will be of the format i-00000000)
        • euca-allocate-address
        • This will return an IP address that has been assigned to your project so that you can now associate to your instance, e.g. 172.241.0.3
        • euca-associate-address -i i-00000001 172.241.0.3
      • Now back on your host (so outside of VirtualBox), grab a copy of cloud/creds directory
        • scp -r user@172.241.0.101:cloud/creds .
      • You can now access that host using the Public address you associated to it above
        • ssh -i cloud/creds/openstack.pem root@172.241.0.3

    CONGRATULATIONS! You have now created a complete cloud environment under VirtualBox that you can manage from your computer (host) as if you’re managing services on Amazon. To demonstrate this you can terminate that instance you created from your computer (host)

    • sudo apt-get install euca2ools
      . cloud/creds/novarc
      euca-describe-instances
      euca-terminate-instances i-00000001

    Credits

    This guide is based on Thierry Carrez’ blog @ http://fnords.wordpress.com/2010/12/02/bleeding-edge-openstack-nova-on-maverick/

  • Next: Part 2 – OpenStack on a multiple VirtualBox VMs with OpenStack instances accessible from host